Puppy Training 101: Essential Commands And Techniques

So you’ve just brought home an adorable new puppy and you’re excited to start training them. But where do you begin? In this article titled Puppy Training 101, we’ll explore the essential commands and techniques you need to know to successfully train your puppy. From sit and stay to leash training and crate training, we’ll break down each command and provide step-by-step instructions on how to teach them effectively. Whether you’re a first-time puppy owner or looking to brush up on your training skills, this article has got you covered. Get ready to unlock your puppy’s potential and establish a strong foundation for a well-behaved and obedient companion.

House Training

House training your puppy is an essential part of ensuring a harmonious and clean living environment for both you and your furry friend. A well-trained puppy will know where and when to do their business, saving you from constantly cleaning up accidents. One of the most effective methods for house training is crate training.

Crate Training

Crate training is a valuable tool for house training your puppy. A crate provides them with a safe and secure space, similar to a den, where they can relax and sleep. By keeping your puppy in a crate when you cannot supervise them, you prevent accidents from occurring throughout your home. It also helps establish a routine for your puppy, as they will learn to associate their crate with rest and quiet time.

When introducing your puppy to their crate, make sure it is a positive experience. Place their favorite blanket or toy inside, and leave the door open so they can explore freely. Encourage your puppy to enter the crate by using treats or verbal praise. Gradually increase the amount of time they spend in the crate, always rewarding them for good behavior.

Establishing a Routine

Establishing a consistent routine is key to successful house training. Dogs are creatures of habit, and by following a set schedule, you can anticipate when your puppy needs to go outside. Take your puppy out first thing in the morning, after meals, after naps, and before bedtime. Use a command word or phrase, such as “go potty,” to associate with the act of eliminating. Be patient and give your puppy enough time to do their business outside.

Rewarding Good Behavior

Positive reinforcement is a powerful training technique that encourages good behavior in puppies. When your puppy eliminates outside, be sure to reward them immediately with praise and treats. This reinforces the idea that going potty outside is the desired behavior. It is important to be consistent with rewards and praise, as this will motivate your puppy to continue their good behavior.

Dealing with Accidents

Accidents are bound to happen during the house training process, especially in the early stages. If you catch your puppy in the act of eliminating indoors, interrupt them with a sharp sound, such as a clap, and quickly take them outside to finish their business. Avoid punishing or scolding your puppy, as this can create fear and anxiety. Instead, clean up any accidents using a pet-specific cleaner to eliminate odors and prevent repeat incidents. Remember to remain patient and consistent, as house training takes time and effort.

puppy training

Basic Commands

Teaching your puppy basic commands is not only a fun and rewarding experience, but it also establishes the foundation for more advanced training in the future. These commands help your puppy understand what is expected of them and promote good behavior and obedience.


The “sit” command is one of the most important commands you can teach your puppy. It serves as a foundation for other commands and helps control their impulses. To teach your puppy to sit, hold a treat close to their nose and slowly move it backward over their head. As their head moves up to follow the treat, their bottom will naturally lower into a sitting position. Once they are sitting, give the command “sit” and reward them with the treat and praise.


The “stay” command is crucial for keeping your puppy safe in various situations. Start by asking your puppy to sit, then place your open palm in front of their face and give the command “stay.” Take a small step backward and reward them if they stay in position. Gradually increase the distance and duration of the “stay” command, always rewarding good behavior. Remember to use a release word, such as “okay,” to let your puppy know they are free to move again.

Lie Down

The “lie down” command is useful for situations where you want your puppy to settle down and relax. Begin by asking your puppy to sit, then hold a treat close to the ground and slowly move it forward. As your puppy follows the treat, their body will naturally lower into a lying position. Use the command “lie down” and reward them with the treat and praise. Practice this command in various environments to reinforce their understanding.


The “come” command is essential for recalling your puppy when they are off-leash or in potentially dangerous situations. Start by kneeling down and calling your puppy’s name, using an excited and inviting tone. Use a hand gesture, such as patting your thigh, to encourage them to come towards you. When they reach you, reward them with treats and praise. Gradually increase the distance between you and your puppy when practicing this command.

Leave It

The “leave it” command teaches your puppy to ignore or let go of items they should not have in their mouth. Start by showing your puppy a treat in your closed fist and say “leave it.” When they stop trying to get the treat, reward them with a different treat and praise. Practice this command with various objects, gradually increasing the difficulty level. It is important to only give your puppy the “leave it” command when you are certain they will obey, as consistency is key.

Drop It

The “drop it” command is used when you want your puppy to release an object they already have in their mouth. Begin by playing with a toy and allowing your puppy to hold onto it. Then, offer a high-value treat and use the command “drop it.” When your puppy releases the toy, reward them with the treat and praise. It is important to use positive reinforcement and never forcefully remove objects from your puppy’s mouth, as this can create negative associations.

Positive Reinforcement

Positive reinforcement is a highly effective training technique that involves rewarding desired behaviors to encourage their repetition. This method focuses on praise, treats, and other rewards to motivate and reinforce good behavior in your puppy.

Understanding the Concept

The concept of positive reinforcement is based on the idea that animals are more likely to repeat behaviors that result in a pleasant outcome. When you reward your puppy for exhibiting a desired behavior, be it sitting, staying, or coming, they associate that behavior with positive consequences. This strengthens the neural connections in their brain, making them more likely to repeat the behavior in the future.

Choosing the Right Rewards

Choosing the right rewards is crucial in positive reinforcement training. Treats should be small, soft, and highly palatable to your puppy. Use a variety of treats to keep them engaged and motivated. In addition to treats, verbal praise, petting, and playtime can also be rewarding for your puppy. Observe what truly motivates your puppy and tailor your rewards accordingly.

Timing is Key

The timing of rewards is essential in positive reinforcement training. You must deliver the reward immediately after your puppy exhibits the desired behavior, so they can make the connection between the behavior and the reward. If you wait too long, your puppy may not associate the reward with their actions. Be prompt and consistent in rewarding good behavior to reinforce their understanding.

Consistency and Patience

Consistency and patience are vital when using positive reinforcement training. Be clear and consistent with your commands, rewards, and expectations. Set realistic goals and remember that training takes time and dedication. Be patient with your puppy and refrain from punishing or scolding them for mistakes. Positive reinforcement creates a positive learning environment and fosters a strong bond between you and your furry companion.

training a puppy


Socialization plays a crucial role in shaping your puppy’s behavior and ensuring they grow up to be confident and well-adjusted adults. Exposing your puppy to various environments, people, and animals at an early age lays the foundation for their social skills and helps prevent fear and anxiety.

Early Socialization Importance

Early socialization, which typically occurs between 3 and 14 weeks of age, is the most crucial period for social development in puppies. During this time, puppies are more receptive to new experiences and less likely to develop fear or aggression towards unfamiliar stimuli. Exposing your puppy to different environments and stimuli during this period helps them develop positive associations and builds their confidence.

Exposing to Different Environments

Expose your puppy to different environments to familiarize them with various sights, sounds, and smells. Take them for walks in different neighborhoods, introduce them to different surfaces, such as grass, sand, and pavement, and let them explore new environments under your supervision. Gradually increase the level of difficulty, ensuring your puppy remains comfortable and relaxed throughout the process.

Introducing to New People and Animals

Introduce your puppy to a wide range of people, including adults, children, and individuals wearing different clothing or accessories. Encourage others to interact gently and positively with your puppy, providing treats and rewards for good behavior. This helps your puppy develop trust and confidence when meeting new people. Similarly, expose your puppy to other friendly and vaccinated dogs so they can learn appropriate dog-to-dog social skills.

How to Handle Fear and Anxiety

It is important to approach socialization with patience and sensitivity, as some puppies may exhibit fear or anxiety in new situations. If your puppy shows signs of fear, such as cowering, hiding, or excessive panting, give them space and time to acclimate. Gradually expose them to the fearful stimulus at a distance and reward them for any signs of relaxation or curiosity. Seek professional help if your puppy’s fear or anxiety persists or worsens.

Leash Training

Leash training is an essential skill that allows you to safely walk and control your puppy. It teaches them to walk politely on a leash without pulling, lunging, or reacting to distractions. With patience and consistency, you can turn your walks into enjoyable bonding experiences.

Choosing the Right Leash and Collar

Choosing the right leash and collar is the first step in leash training your puppy. Use a lightweight, comfortable leash that is appropriate for your puppy’s size and strength. A flat collar or a martingale collar is recommended for most puppies. Avoid using choke or prong collars, as they can cause harm and discomfort.

Teaching Loose Leash Walking

To teach your puppy to walk politely on a leash, start by keeping the leash loose and allowing your puppy to explore and sniff within a specific radius. Use treats and verbal praise to reward your puppy for walking without pulling or lunging. If they start to pull, stop walking and wait for them to come back to your side. When they do, reward them and continue walking. Gradually increase the duration and distance of loose leash walking as your puppy improves.

Managing Pulling and Tugging

If your puppy tends to pull on the leash, there are several techniques you can use to manage and discourage this behavior. One effective method is to change direction as soon as your puppy starts pulling, using verbal cues such as “let’s go” or “this way.” This interrupts their forward momentum and teaches them to pay attention to you. Reward your puppy for walking by your side without pulling and be consistent in your training.

Addressing Reactivity

Some puppies may exhibit reactive behavior, such as barking or lunging, when encountering other dogs, people, or stimuli on walks. To address reactive behavior, maintain a safe distance from the trigger and redirect your puppy’s attention to you using treats or toys. Gradually decrease the distance between your puppy and the trigger, rewarding them for calm behavior. Seek professional guidance if your puppy’s reactivity escalates or becomes difficult to manage.

Obedience Training

Obedience training is essential for building a strong bond and establishing clear communication with your puppy. It teaches them to respond to your commands and helps prevent behavioral issues in the future. Starting with the basics and gradually progressing to more advanced commands is key to successful obedience training.

Building a Bond with Your Puppy

Establishing a positive and trusting bond with your puppy is the first and most important step in obedience training. Spend quality time together, engage in play and training sessions, and provide plenty of love and attention. This helps your puppy see you as a reliable and trustworthy leader, making them more willing to listen and follow your commands.

Teaching the Basics

Start with teaching the basic commands such as sit, stay, and come, which we covered earlier. Use positive reinforcement techniques, such as treats, praise, and toys, to motivate and reward your puppy for their correct responses. Be patient and consistent in your training, keeping the sessions short and enjoyable. Practice the commands in different environments to generalize their understanding.

Advanced Commands

Once your puppy has mastered the basics, you can introduce more advanced commands, such as “heel,” “wait,” and “drop.” These commands further enhance your puppy’s listening skills and impulse control. Break down each command into small steps and reward your puppy for their progress. Advanced commands require additional time and practice, so be patient and keep the training sessions engaging.

Proofing Commands

Proofing commands is an important aspect of obedience training. It involves practicing commands in various real-life scenarios, distractions, and environments. For example, you can practice “sit” or “stay” at the park while other dogs are playing nearby. Gradually increase the level of difficulty, always rewarding your puppy for their correct responses. Proofing your puppy’s commands ensures they can obey in any situation, making them a well-rounded and obedient companion.

train my puppy

Problem Solving

Addressing common behavior issues is an essential part of puppy training 101. By understanding the underlying causes of these behaviors and using appropriate techniques, you can effectively overcome and prevent them.

Nipping and Biting

Nipping and biting are natural behaviors for puppies, but it is important to discourage them from using their mouth inappropriately. When your puppy bites or nips, redirect their attention to an appropriate chew toy. If their behavior persists, yelp loudly to mimic the sound of a hurt littermate, which signals to your puppy that their behavior is painful. Consistency is key, and over time, your puppy will learn appropriate bite inhibition.

Excessive Barking

Excessive barking can be frustrating for both you and your puppy. Identify the triggers for your puppy’s barking, which may include boredom, fear, or attention-seeking. Address the underlying cause by providing mental and physical stimulation, gradually desensitizing them to fear-inducing stimuli, or ignoring attention-seeking barking. Reward your puppy for calm and quiet behavior and seek professional help if their barking becomes excessive or uncontrollable.

Jumping on People

Jumping on people is a common behavior issue in puppies. While it may be cute when they are small, it can become problematic as they grow in size. To discourage jumping, turn away from your puppy and cross your arms when they jump. When they have all four paws on the ground, reward them with attention and praise. Consistency is key, and with time, your puppy will learn to greet people politely.

Chewing on Furniture

Chewing on furniture is a natural behavior for puppies, but it can be destructive and expensive. Provide your puppy with appropriate chew toys and make them easily accessible. Encourage them to chew on the toys by applying a small amount of peanut butter or special chew toy gel. If your puppy starts chewing on furniture, redirect their attention to a chew toy and reward them for chewing on the appropriate item. Consistency and supervision are crucial in preventing furniture chewing.

Boundary Training

Establishing boundaries is important to keep your puppy safe and ensure they understand which areas are off-limits. By using visual and auditory cues, you can teach your puppy to respect boundaries and prevent them from entering restricted areas.

Establishing Boundaries

Decide which areas in your home or yard are off-limits for your puppy. Use physical barriers, such as baby gates or closed doors, to block access to these areas. Additionally, use visual cues, such as “no entry” signs or tape, to signal that certain areas are prohibited. Be consistent in enforcing these boundaries and avoid making exceptions, as it may confuse your puppy.

Using Visual and Auditory Cues

Visual and auditory cues can effectively communicate to your puppy the boundaries they should respect. Place flags or markers near the boundaries to provide a visual cue. Use a firm and clear voice command, such as “no” or “stay,” when your puppy approaches the restricted area. If they continue to approach, gently redirect them away and reward them when they comply.

Preventing Escapes

Preventing escapes requires a combination of training and physical barriers. Ensure your yard is secure with a fenced enclosure, and regularly inspect for any potential escape routes. Train your puppy to come when called and reinforce their recall command using positive reinforcement techniques. Do not leave your puppy unattended in the yard until they have mastered their recall skills.

Teaching Off-Limits Areas

To teach your puppy to stay away from certain areas, such as the kitchen or a particular piece of furniture, use positive reinforcement techniques. Place treats or toys near the boundary, and when your puppy approaches, use a firm voice command such as “no” or “off.” Gently redirect them away from the off-limits area and reward them with treats and praise when they comply. Consistency is key, and repetition will help your puppy understand which areas are off-limits.

how to train a puppy

Clicker Training

Clicker training is a positive reinforcement technique that uses a distinct sound to mark desired behaviors. It creates a clear association between the click sound and the reward, making it a powerful tool for training your puppy.

Understanding Clicker Training

Clicker training involves using a small handheld device called a clicker that emits a distinct clicking sound. The click sound is used to mark the exact moment your puppy exhibits the desired behavior. This marks the behavior as correct and signals to your puppy that a reward is coming. Clicker training helps create clear communication between you and your puppy, making the training process more efficient and effective.

Free Shaping

Free shaping is a clicker training technique that allows your puppy to problem-solve and offer behaviors on their own. Start with a simple behavior, such as touching a target stick with their nose. Click and reward your puppy for any small movements towards the target, gradually shaping the behavior you desire. This method encourages your puppy to think and actively participate in the training process.

Capturing Behaviors

Capturing behaviors involves observing your puppy naturally exhibiting a desired behavior and clicking to mark that moment. For example, if your puppy sits on their own, click and reward them immediately. This method teaches your puppy that their natural behaviors can be acknowledged and rewarded, encouraging them to repeat those behaviors in the future.

Charging the Clicker

Before using the clicker in training sessions, you need to “charge” the clicker by pairing the sound with rewards. Simply click the clicker and immediately give your puppy a treat. Repeat this process several times so your puppy learns to associate the click with a positive outcome. Once your puppy understands the concept, you can use the clicker to mark and reinforce specific behaviors during training.

Final Thoughts on Puppy Training 101

Puppy training is an essential part of ensuring the well-being and happiness of your furry companion. House training, basic commands, positive reinforcement, socialization, leash training, obedience training, problem-solving, boundary training, and clicker training are all crucial components of a comprehensive training program. Remember to approach training with patience, consistency, and a positive attitude, as this will foster a strong bond and create a positive learning environment for you and your puppy. With time, effort, and lots of love, you will raise a well-behaved and joyful canine companion.